Immunotoxicology is the study of immune dysfunction resulting from exposure of an organism to a xenobiotic. The immune dysfunction may take the form of immunosuppression or alternatively, allergy, autoimmunity or any number of inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Because the immune system plays a critical role in host resistance to disease as well as in normal homeostasis of an organism, identification of immunotoxic risk is significant in the protection of human, animal and wildlife health.
Toxicology testing laboratories conduct sample testing to trace various controlled substances and to establish whether these substances are being excessively consumed. These tests are conducted on suspect samples, which include urine, hair, blood, and oral fluids. North America toxicology laboratories have been estimated to be valued at US$ 97.4 Mn in 2015, which is anticipated to increase to US$ 198.2 Mn revenue by 2022 at a CAGR of 11.1%. Factors such as growing abuse of controlled substances, increased intervention by government authorities, regulations to deter uncontrolled consumption of illicit drugs, and favourable reimbursement policies for conducting toxicity testing across workplaces are expected to drive the growth of the toxicology laboratories market in North America.