Clinical Immunology and Allergy

Clinical Immunology is a branch of Immunology which deals with clinical disorders at the molecular and cellular levels. Allergy involves an exaggerated response of the immune system, often to common substances such as foods or pollen. The immune system is a complex system that normally defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while also surveying for conditions such as cancer and autoimmunity. Allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and that cause an allergic reaction.

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are a common set of chronic disorders that affect 5–7% of people in Western populations. Although they are often disparate in terms of their symptoms and key patient demographics, they are pathophysiologically linked, being characterised by dysregulation of immune pathways and an inappropriate immune response. The immunology drugs market is projected to grow from $65.1bn in 2016 to $113bn in 2023, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.2%. The market size in the US is expected to increase from $38.3bn in 2016 to $59.8bn in 2023 at a CAGR of 6.58%, accounting for half of the global immunology market.